World Population Day 2018: 6 ways of contraception for a healthy family
Your baby, your choice. Yes, it is the prerogative of every couple to decide whether or not they want to add a new member to their family. However, your choice of not having a baby shouldn’t be put an end to your sex life. Safe contraception methods ensure birth control without impacting your life on bed.
What does a birth control method do?
Temporary for spacing: delaying the first pregnancy or spacing between child births
Permanent(sterilization) for limiting the family after achieving the desired family size
Promotes the health of the mother
Prevents low birth weight of the next infant
Choosing the right contraception
There are many contraceptive methods available in India, from implants and injections, intrauterine devices (IUDs, both copper and hormonal), emergency contraception, pills and vaginal rings, male and female condoms and diaphragms, female and male sterilisation.
“When you are choosing the method of contraception, it is important to have accurate information about how well each method works, the possible side effects, how easy it is to use and how much it costs. Headache, Depression, Spotting, Mild elevation of BP, Weight gain, Nausea and drowsiness are few common side effects of contraceptives,” said Dr. Shafalika S B, Consultant – Gynaec Laparoscopic Surgeon, Columbia Asia Referral Hospital Yeshwanthpur.
It is put on the erect penis just before intercourse. It collects semen and prevents it from entering the
vagina. A new condom is to be used for each intercourse.
It is easily available, easy to carry and cheap
It protects against STD, HIV infections
No prescription is needed
Help prevent cancer cervix in a female partner
Interrupts intercourse as condom has to be put on an erect penis
Penile sensitivity sometimes decreases
It can tear off or slip off and can fail if not removed properly
Condom may deteriorate in too much heat or light or if stored for more than 3 years Female CondomThe female condom is made up of a soft plastic called polyurethane. It lines the vagina up to the cervix and if used correctly, it can be 99% efficient. It protects against STDs but, it carries the high-risk of breakage. “The best part is that unlike male condoms, these can be inserted into the vagina 8 hours before having intercourse,” added Dr Shafalika.
- Oral contraceptive Pill
Can be started only after counselling, screening and selection of clients
It is effective, safe and non-invasive
The pills act by suppressing ovulation
Needs to be taken daily
Pre starting counselling and evaluation needs to be done
Cannot be given when lactating
Absolute contraindications are pregnancy, H/o thromboembolism, H/o Cerebrovascular accident, cardiac disease, the malignancy of breast, active liver disease, cholestatic jaundice and migraine.
- Copper T
It is a T shaped plastic device made of polyethene an impregnated with Barium sulphate to make it radio-opaque. It has 1-3 % of failure.
Insertion once in five years
Excessive or irregular bleeding
Active genital tract infections eg., vaginitis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, septic abortion, cervical erosion
Previous history of ectopic pregnancy
- Injectable contraceptives“A contraceptive injection contains the synthetic form of the hormone, progestogen. One injection can last up to 8-12 weeks depending on what type you’re going for. Although it’s a reversible contraception, it can take up to a year for the effects of the injection to wear off. Depo-Provera is a natural hormone that is usually produced by the ovaries. It prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation, thickens cervical mucosa to prevent sperms from moving into the uterus and thins the uterine lining to avoid implantation of a fertilized egg. Some changes in the menstrual period may happen bleeding or spotting between periods, an increase or decrease in bleeding or no period at all.
Permanent method of contraception whereby the person is rendered infertile. It involves blocking of the duct that carries the egg and sperm. Thus, the ovum and the sperm cannot meet and no fertilization takes place. In males, it is called vasectomy and in females, it is called Tubectomy. Female sterilization can be done by the open method or by laparoscopy.
It is a very simple, day care procedure. It can be done by the incision method or by no-scalpel (no cut) method. No cut method has a lower infection risk and heals in a short time. Vasectomy does affect orgasm or ejaculation. Tubectomy: is a permanent method where both fallopian tubes are blocked or cut, so that the ovum or egg cannot travel from the ovaries to the uterus for fertilization with the sperm. It can be done through the open method or by laparoscopy. In open method, the fallopian tubes are cut and tied, while in the laparoscopic method the tubes are blocked by a clip, thereby preventing the ovum from reaching the uterus. Both tubectomy and vasectomy can be reversed but the results cannot be guaranteed.Read: 7 innovations to control population explosion in India according to experts
- Contraceptive PatchThe contraceptive patch contains both estrogen and progestogen and works the same way as the implant and the injection. However, the patch needs to be changed at least once a week. But it sure is one of the easiest options to go for.
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Published: July 11, 2018 7:34 pm | Updated:July 11, 2018 8:39 pm